What Is Bone Marrow Transplant?

Bone Marrow Transplant ( BMT) or stem cell transplant is the treatment for various types of cancer such as leukemia, myeloma, and lymphoma. In earlier days, stem cell transplant is collectively called a bone marrow transplant because the stem cells are only collected from bone marrow cells. But nowadays it is also received from blood and hip bone cells. A stem cell transplant is needed to create some new blood cells. In case of such kinds of services, you need to consult the best bone marrow transplantation service provider hospital near your home city because it saves a lot of transportation costs.

The part of bones is called bone marrow cells, which are responsible for making healthy blood cells, including white blood cells to fight infection, red blood cells to transport oxygen from different parts of the body, and platelets to stop bleeding. Blood forming cells are found in bone marrow, bloodstream, and umbilical cord blood.

What are the Symptoms of Bone Marrow Cancer ?

According to oncologist the usual signs and symptoms of this type of cancer can vary from person to person. The usual ones include:

  • Pain in the spine or chest
  • Constipation
  • Nausea
  • Loss of appetite
  • State of confusion
  • Fatigue
  • Frequent infections
  • Weight loss
  • Weakness of the legs
  • Excessive thirst.

Which are tests should be done Before Bone Marrow Transplantation?

These tests help us to know if your body is ready for transplant. They also help us to compare any changes that may occur after the transplant. You may need all or some of these tests. Please talk to your doctor or nurse about any questions or concerns you may have.

  • Laboratory Tests
  • Computerized Axial Tomography (CAT Scan)
  • Echocardiogram (ECHO)
  • Lumbar Puncture (LP)
  • Panorex Film 
  • Pulmonary Function Tests
  • Bone Marrow Aspiration and Biopsy.

How many types of bone marrow transplant?

Autologous bone marrow transplantation: The stem cells are removed from the patient and after high-dose chemotherapy, the stem cells are returned back to the patient’s body. So, the cost will be less when compared with other bone marrow transplant.

Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation: The stem cells are taken from another person. So, the treatment cost would be high.

Haplo – Allogeneic Bone Marrow transplantation: The stem cells are taken from the patient’s family member but half-matched. It involves a complicated procedure, so the treatment cost is expensive.

 

The procedure of a bone marrow transplant includes three steps:

Step 1: Harvesting

Before a Bone Marrow transplantation is performed bone marrow is harvested from the donor. The hip bone has the highest concentration of bone marrow in the body, so the healthy bone marrows are extracted from there. Punctures are made on the skin just above the hip bone through which the bone marrow and blood is extracted with the help of a specialized needle. After the harvest, the bone particles and fat are removed from the collection. The process of harvesting takes about 2 hours.

Step 2: Conditioning

In the next step the patient undergoes chemotherapy or radiation therapy so as to destroy the damaged or diseased bone marrow in his/her body. The immune system is suppressed so that the donor bone marrow can be introduced in the patient’s body.

Step 3: Transplant

The patient is advised to rest for a few days after conditioning so that the drugs can flush out of their system. After that the donor bone marrows are injected into the patient’s body with the help of a central line. An anaesthetic is not required during a bone marrow transplant as the procedure is painless.

 

How many Types of treatment for a Bone Marrow Transplant?

  • Stem cell transplantation: This is a process by which the doctors take out healthy blood-forming stem cells from umbilical cord blood or peripheral blood or from the bone marrow of the same patient to be transplanted in the affected area to cure the disease.
  • Chemotherapy: This is one of the common treatment for cancer patients. This anti-cancer drug prevents the metastasis of the cancerous cells in the patient’s blood.
  • Radiation therapy: This treatment can be given to the patient in the initial stage of the treatment before stem transplant. This effectively reduces the cancerous cells and help the patient get relief from pain.

Steps involved in BMT treatment

  • Chemotherapy is done with or without radiation to destroy the defected blood-forming cells.
  • This is not any type of surgery, as new bone marrow cells are introduced in the bloodstream through intravenous.
  • After the induction, they grow and starts making new RBCs, WBCs, and platelets
  • It has the potential to treat blood cancers as leukemia, lymphoma, and sickle cell disease
  • Collecting the stem cell by using the IV catheter from the bloodstream
  • Transplant treatment takes around 5 to 10 days in which you get high doses of chemotherapy
  • The infusion process is applied to put stem cell back into your bloodstream
  • Several medications and drugs are given to the patient to recover and reduce the risks.

Discharge Instructions for Bone Marrow Transplant?

After bone marrow transplantation, your risk of infection is greater because your immune system is weak for up to 6 months after the transplant. Protect yourself from infection by following the guidelines and precautions on this sheet.

  • Increase your activity slowly.
  • Begin light exercise such as walking.
  • Get plenty of rest and take breaks between activities.
  • Check with your healthcare provider before driving a car.
  • Don’t swim until the central venous catheters have been removed.
  • Wash your hands often, especially after using the bathroom.
  • Wash your hands before and after caring for your central venous catheter, if you have one.
  • Use an electric razor for shaving.

Frequently asked questions

1.Why should you go for a bone marrow transplant in India ?

Bone marrow transplant in India is one of the most established forms of treatment offered to patients across several specialized BMT units and hospitals. One of the main reasons why patients should choose to go for bone marrow transplant in India is that this complex procedure is conducted with extreme care in world-class hospitals and a secure and sterile environment by the experienced experts only.

 

2.What is the cost of bone marrow transplant in India?

Bone marrow transplant cost in India is one of the best in the world. This is the reason why so many patients come from around the world, Mauritius, Nigeria, Rwanda, Kenya, Zambia, Tanzania, Uganda and other African countries, and South East Asia, Uzbekistan, Iraq, travel to India to get it done.

Bone marrow transplant cost in India depends on two main reasons – the type of BMT conducted and the type of condition to be treated. The average cost of bone marrow transplant in India for autologous transplant starts from approximately $18000. On the other hand, the cost of allogeneic transplant in India starts from approximately $28000. In certain cases, an allogeneic transplant may be recommended or conducted. Its cost is approximately $7000 in India.

3.How long do you have stay in hospital after a bone marrow transplant In India?

I used to tell my patients, roughly 1 year from diagnosis to recovery (not all of that time is spent in the hospital,obviously). The transplant itself would maybe take 30 days if there are no complications, but a significant number of patients will need several subsequent hospitalizations for minor or major complications (ranging from simple infection to life-threatening complications).

4.How do you know if a bone marrow transplant (In India) is successful?

Until now, daily blood tests have been used to assess whether the newly transplanted healthy cells have survived and started to multiply in the bone marrow, a process called engraftment. But it takes two to four weeks, sometimes more, before doctors have an idea about whether the transplant was successful.

What is the success rate of a bone marrow transplant In India?

The success rate for Autologous Bone-Marrow transplant in India is nearly 96% whereas that of the Allogeneic Bone-Marrow Transplants is 90% where there is a close sibling donor match. The success rate for Bone-Marrow Transplant is higher than that of any other developed country in the world.

Best BMT Surgeon In India

Dr Rahul Bhargava

HOD, MBBS, MD, DM
15 Years of Experience
Gurgaon, India

  • Dr. Rahul Bhargava is currently associated as head of the Haemato Oncology & Bone marrow transplant department of Fortis Memorial Research Institute hospital, Gurgaon.
  • He specializes in Bone marrow transplant and is regarded as one of the best of his generation. He has done close to 100 bone marrow transplants which is record breaking in North India.
Dr Vikas Dua

Senior Consultant , MBBS, MD, Fellowship
21 Years of Experience
Gurgaon , India

  • Dr. Vikas Dua is one the renowned consultants in the field of Pediatric- Haemato-oncology & bone marrow transplant.
  • He has an experience of more than 21 years and has performed several successful BMTs for thalassemia and leukemia cases for children from India, Afghanistan, Iraq and African Countries.
Bone Marrow Transplant cost In India? 1

Consultant , DM, MD, MBBS
9 Years of Experience
Noida, India

Dr. Pawan Kumar Singh is a Hematologic Oncologist and Bone Marrow Transplant Surgeon with more than 9 Years of Experience.

Dr. Anant Kumar

Chairman , DNB, MCh, MS, MBBS
30 Years of Experience
New Delhi , India

  • Dr. Anant Kumar is a renowned urologist with 30+ years of experience.
  • His interest include Kidney Transplantation, Robotic Assisted, Laparoscopic Urology, Renovascular Hypertension, Laparoscopic Urology, Urological Oncology, Laser Urological, Surgery & Reconstructive Urology.

  • He performed 3500 kidney transplantations.

Top BMT Hospitals In India

Fortis Hospital. Best Shoulder replacement surgery In India

Established in : 2001
Multi Specialty

Fortis Hospital Gurgaon is the flagship hospital of Fortis Group, it is one of the leading healthcare destination providing world-class integrated services to the community at large. Spread over the sprawling landscape of 11 acres with the capacity of 1000 beds, Fortis Gurgaon brings together an outstanding pool of doctors, assistants and medical staff to treat patients.

Medanta Hospital

Established in : 2009
Number of Beds : 1250
Multi Specialty

Medanta hospital Gurgaon is one of the top hospitals in india. It is India’s largest multi-super-specialty hospital matching the highest standards of healthcare delivery across the world. The hospital has been founded by Dr. Naresh Trehan a cardiac surgeon who has envisioned with aim of bringing to India the highest standards of medical care along with providing integrated healthcare services to the patients and excellent services in clinical services, research, training, and education.

Artemis Hospital,Best Shoulder replacement in India

Artemis Hospital

Established in : 2007
Number of Beds : 400
Multi Specialty

Artemis Hospitals in Gurgaon was established in 2007 with a mission to deliver world-class healthcare procedures. It is a multi-specialty hospital offering a wide array of medical care services spread across 9 acres, is a 400 plus bed.

Manipal Hospital

Manipal Hospital

Established in : 1991
Number of Beds : 380
Multi Specialty

Manipal Hospitals is 380 bedded multi-specialty healthcare providers catering to both Indian and international patients. It is one of India’s foremost hospitals that aim at providing specialized tertiary and quaternary care. Manipal hospital is a part of the Manipal Education and Medical Group (MEMG) – a leader in the areas of education and healthcare. With more than 5000 operational beds, their hospitals provide quality and affordable healthcare to everyone.