Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is a minimally invasive procedure to replace a narrowed aortic valve that fails to open properly (aortic valve stenosis). Transcatheter aortic valve replacement is sometimes also called transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI).
Transcatheter aortic valve replacement is a procedure that delivers a replacement valve in much the same way that a cardiac stent is implanted. This procedure does not require stopping the heart or opening the chest cavity. These revolutionary valves, constructed from a combination of metal mesh and animal tissue, are delivered via a thin wire (catheter) and expanded in place over the existing valve. Once in place, the valve immediately begins functioning.
Typically, older patients cannot have conventional valve replacement surgery due to high risk. TAVR is a minimally invasive procedure that repairs the narrowed aortic valve without a major surgery.
TAVR can relieve the signs and symptoms of aortic valve stenosis and may improve survival in people who can’t undergo surgery or have a high risk of surgical complications.
TAVR may be an option if you are at intermediate or high risk of complications from surgical aortic valve replacement for symptomatic severe Aortic Stenosis. TAVR may also be indicated when you are not a candidate for open-heart surgery.
TAVR may also be an possibility if you have an existing biological tissue valve that was formerly inserted to replace the aortic valve, but it is not functioning well anymore.
Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is a minimally invasive procedure to replace the aortic valve in people with aortic valve stenosis.
Aortic valve stenosis — or aortic stenosis — occurs when the heart’s aortic valve thickens and calcifies, preventing the valve from opening fully, which limits blood flow from your heart to the rest of your body. Aortic stenosis can cause chest pain, fainting, fatigue, leg swelling and shortness of breath. It may also lead to heart failure and sudden cardiac death.
TAVR may be an option if:
All medical procedures come with some type of risk. Risks of transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) may include:
Always tell your doctor or nurse what medicines you are taking, including over-the counter medicines, supplements, or herbs.
You should see your dentist to make sure there are no infections in your mouth. If untreated, these infections may spread to your heart or new heart valve.
For the 2-week period before surgery, you may be asked to stop taking medicines that make it harder for your blood to clot. These might cause increased bleeding during the surgery.
Some of them are aspirin, ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin), and naproxen (Aleve, Naprosyn).
If you are taking warfarin (Coumadin) or clopidogrel (Plavix), talk with your surgeon before stopping or changing how you take these drugs.
TAVI is conducted under general anaesthesia. Depending on the type of approach, your doctor will make a small incision, either in the upper chest, in the leg, or in the chest between the ribs.
The treatment team will put a small, hollow tube, named as sheath at the incision area. Now its necessary to open the damaged valve and prepare it for the new one.
To gain access to the aortic valve, a catheter is inserted through this sheath. Once it makes it to the valve, a balloon is inflated at the termination point. After the balloon presses the thickened tissue, it is deflated and then removed properly.
After the opening of the diseased valve leaflets, the new artificial valve is inserted through the sheath, and hence directed to the heart valve.
As soon as the balloon on the catheter is inflated, the new artificial valve enlarges within the diseased valve. After the successful positioning of this new valve, the balloon is deflated and hence removed.
You may spend the night in the intensive care unit for monitoring after your procedure. Generally you’ll spend about two to five days recovering in the hospital.
You’ll need regular follow-up appointments with your doctor after TAVR. Let your doctor know if you have any new or worsening signs or symptoms.
You may need to take certain medications after your procedure. For example, you’ll need to take blood-thinning medications to prevent future blood clots. Your doctor will discuss with you how long you may need to take these medications. Always take your medications as prescribed.
Artificial heart valves, including a transcatheter aortic valve, can become infected with bacteria. Most bacteria that cause heart valve infections come from the bacteria in the mouth. Excellent dental hygiene, including routine dental cleanings, can help prevent these infections. Your doctor will recommend that you take medications before certain dental procedures to prevent infections.
Your doctor may recommend that you make healthy lifestyle changes, such as eating a heart-healthy diet, exercising regularly, maintaining a healthy weight and avoiding smoking.
Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) may relieve the signs and symptoms of aortic valve stenosis and improve your overall health and quality of life. TAVR can also reduce the risk of death.
A. It may take several weeks to months before you get back to all of your regular activities, depending on your overall health and heart health. Wound healing at the catheter incision site takes about two weeks after a TAVR. Follow all instructions for covering and dressing the wound, keeping it dry, and showering.
A. How long will I be in the hospital after my TAVR? TAVR patients typically spend about 3 to 5 days in the hospital.
A. As with any heart procedure, there are life-threatening risks, so survival rate is a critical measure. At Duke, our TAVR survival rate is 98.7%.
A. Complications of TAVR may include bleeding, kidney injury, heart attack, and stroke
A. The average Transcatheter aortic valve replacement Cost in India ranges between USD 42000 to USD 62000
A. All patients with severe aortic stenosis symptoms should be fully evaluated at a center of excellence for treatment options. After comprehensive testing at Michigan Medicine, our multidisciplinary team evaluates the results to determine the best treatment for each patient.
A. Most patients can go back to their normal lifestyle after a few days and return to regular activities much faster than with major surgery, which often requires up to a three-month recovery period.